Leach fields: How they work & proper maintenance

Leach fields: How they work & proper maintenance

A leach field is a sewage system ( αποφραξεις αθηνα )that is attached to every drain in your home. These drains may get backed up with solid waste when they should drain out liquid waste. The reason it becomes solid is simply because over time all of the liquid soaps, detergents and actual waste builds up.  As a homeowner,  you want to prevent this from happening and keep it running smoothly to avoid destruction.

Maintaining your drainage system is very important. If not treated properly, it may abruptly malfunction. Foul odors, swampy lawns, and back-up in your tubs and toilets may occur. This is preventable with proper care and maintenance by using a granular product. This will help you avoid expensive repair costs on your leach field and possible lawn repair. Both can be very costly and you may even have to leave your home for a few days.

The fact that you have a leach field is not the issue. This system is just as good as any other type of drainage system. Nonetheless, you use your leach field system more than you realize. When you do laundry, when you use the shower, toilet, sink, etc. Without knowing it, you’re slowly building up solid waste while doing these day-to-day activities. By adding  treating your leach field to your routine, you can avoid any problems.

I would never literally go into my leach field and clean it out, nor would I want to pay thousands of dollars for a restoration or repair job. But I will do my research and find the proper product within the industry of septic treatments. And find the easiest most efficient product on the market.

Regardless of the price it has to be more cost effective then paying a professional.  I have not chosen a product yet, but I have realized that for my leach field a liquid treatment is probably a poor choice because liquid detergents, soaps and shampoos are what’s adding to the build up of solid waste. I may be wrong, but it sounds about right to me.

So my goal is for whomever has a leach field to hopefully follow me and research and add information about the products we end up finding to treat our leach field drain system. Because no matter how rich or poor you are, we all want to save money and protect our homes. So lets do the proper research and end up figuring out the leader in leach field treatment.

See more from our blog.


24 hours emergency plumbers in Athens, Greece

24 hours emergency plumbers in Athens, Greece

We are there around the clock when you need us.
Summers Too Hot? Winters Too Cold?

It is time to get a new 24 Texnikoi Athina ( ydravlikos )unit to regulate your homes temperature all year around.

Garbage Disposals

Help protect your pipes with a Garbage Disposal installed into your sink.

Water Heaters

Seem like your house can not keep your water hot? Maybe it is time for a new water heater.

Drain Cleaning

Drains need maintenance too! Give your pipes a good cleaning and extend their lifespan.

Faucets, Sinks, Toilets

Time for a plumbing upgrade? Improve your homes value by installing any of these new fixtures.

Bathroom Remodeling

Update your bathroom bringing it into the new age with a refreshing new look.

Welcome to 24 Texnikoi Athina

24 Texnikoi Athina has been serving the Athens area for over 25 years providing excellent full-service residential and commercial plumbing and HVAC. We pride ourself in providing elite, top quality service, all at an affordable price.

Why Hire a Professional Plumber?

Some people may lean towards DIY when it comes to plumbing. If you are not an experienced expert in plumbing you could be costing yourself tons of money in the long run. Installing or incorrectly fixing a plumbing problem can lead to leaks or a burst, which will double or triple your cost to get the problem solved. Having a professional handle the job will give you the ease of mind that it will be performed correctly at an affordable price. Enjoy your free time instead of wasting it on plumbing, let 24 Texnikoi Athina do all the hard work for you.

Summers Too Hot? Winters Too Cold? Time for a Change

Do you find yourself in unbearable conditions due to the extremes of weather. Your Summers are too hot, and Winters too cold? It may be time for you to get a HVAC unit. The benefits of having an HVAC unit are more then just keeping your house at a regulated temperature all year around. Upgrading or installing a new HVAC unit instantly increases the value you your home.

Before You Choose a Contractor, You Must Read ThisWith all of the contractor choices that you have, it can be hard to narrow down to the right one for you. We want to make your job easier in finding a contractor. It is vital that you get at least three quotes from three contractors. Let each contractor know that you are getting several different quotes. This will reduce the price of the job, while improving the service.

The 24 Texnikoi Athina Satisfaction Guarantee

From the time that you hire Acosta Plumbing and HVAC until your are satisfied with our service, we will provide you the best quality of service in the industry, period, every employee, every step of the way. We measure our success not in dollars and cents, not even the number of customers served, but in the number of fully satisfied, happy customers.

See more posts in Propress.org

Read more articles in our blog or other blogs:


Australia cancer sufferer first to use new assisted dying law

A 61-year-old cancer patient has become the first person in over two decades to die under controversial assisted dying laws in Australia, a charity said.

Kerry Robertson died in July, three months after the mother-of-two ceased treatment for metastatic breast cancer, the support group Go Gentle Australia said Sunday.

The state of Victoria passed a law in 2017 to legalise the practice, which went into effect this June. Other states are now expected to follow suit.

Robertson, who ended her life in the southeastern town of Bendigo, was diagnosed with breast cancer in 2010—which then spread into her bones, lung, brain, and liver.

She decided to stop receiving treatment in March when the side effects of chemotherapy were no longer manageable and took medication to end her life after a 26-day approval process, the charity said.

“It was quick, she was ready to go. Her body was failing her and she was in incredible pain. She’d been in pain for a long time,” her daughter Jacqui said in a statement.

Euthanasia had previously been legal in Australia’s Northern Territory, but those laws were overturned in a contentious move by the federal government in 1997.

Australian state takes step toward legalizing euthanasia

© 2019 AFP

Australia cancer sufferer first to use new assisted dying law (2019, August 5)
retrieved 5 August 2019
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-08-australia-cancer-dying-law.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Source link


Nine to Five Fashion Looks!

It was more than just terrifying for me to graduate this May and then start working. Like it was a new world and I somehow didn’t think I belong there. Every time my friends used to tell me “Oh man! Can’t wear shorts to office, you will have to come help me shop! ” , I always used to feel that how can shorts or skirts define a girl’s credibility in office.

Buy an affordable women bag today from 4bag!

Most of the times my friends would say “You know shorts won’t work in the corporate world” and I would always be astonished and left bewildered. I mean why not? Why can’t we as women wear what we feel like instead of being restricted to a uniform?

But then again there are two sides to what I used to think and somehow made peace with the fact that corporate offices do have a kind of uniform and it is okay, just like in schools though, but I guess it’s okay. Not for me because I am so happy to be belonging to Fashion industry where you can wear what you want and be what you want.

But I have seen my friends, my roommate, struggle to look out for good formals but I guess I have finally found their miracle brand. This blog post is not only talking about style but mostly the brand and it’s amazing quality and affordability. Yes I am talking about Marie Claire.

Blog post features the most amazing brand I have come across in terms of quality and sustainability. You guys might have heard about the magazine Marie Claire, but it’s also an apparel brand and it has been recently launched in India few months ago.

Both the looks have been inspired by how one can wear really comfortable and buy quality yet really affordable clothes for work and look extremely stylish. The entire Marie Claire collection is exclusively available on Myntra.

It’s not hard at all to look stylish yet very comfortable at work, If you are wearing Marie Claire girls!
Time to make your 9 to 5 look amazing!

And one little thing that I would say to my readers, Wear what you want in your office and let’s not let the society judge our credibility by the clothes we would wear to office. We know we can rock a skirt and still be hard working right?


See more about fashion in our blog:



Brain changes noted in holocaust survivors and their children

Brain changes noted in holocaust survivors and their children

(HealthDay)—Holocaust survivors may have suffered permanent harmful changes to their brain structure, and the brains of their children and grandchildren may also be affected, a small study reveals.

“After more than 70 years, the impact of surviving the Holocaust on brain function is significant,” said researcher Ivan Rektor, a neurologist from Brno, Czech Republic.

MRI scans of 28 Holocaust survivors showed they had a significantly decreased volume of gray matter in the brain compared to 28 people in the same age group without a personal or family history of the Holocaust. Their average age was about 80.

The affected parts of the brain are responsible for stress response, memory, motivation, emotion, learning and behavior, the study authors said.

Reductions in gray matter were significantly higher among Holocaust survivors who were younger than 12 in 1945, compared to those who were older. This may be because a child’s developing brain is more vulnerable to stress, the researchers suggested.

Gray matter reductions in the Holocaust survivors were found in areas of the brain associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in combat veterans and people who suffered high levels of stress early in life.

But gray matter reductions found elsewhere in the brains of Holocaust survivors were far greater than previously found in people with PTSD, the findings showed.

The study can’t prove that the horrors of the Nazi regime actually caused the changes in brain structure seen among survivors and their descendants.

However, the researchers are now assessing Holocaust survivors’ children and grandchildren. And early findings in the children show reduced connectivity between brain structures involved in processing emotion and memory.

“We revealed substantial differences in the brain structures … between Holocaust survivors and controls. Early results show this is also the case in children of survivors, too,” Rektor said in a European Academy of Neurology news release.

“Our hope is that these findings and our ongoing research will allow us to understand more about the effect of these experiences in order to focus therapy to support survivors’ and their descendants’ resilience and growth,” Rektor said. “We may also reveal strategies that Holocaust survivors used to cope with trauma during their later lives and to pass on their experience to further generations.”

The study results were recently presented at a European Academy of Neurology meeting in Oslo, Norway. Data and conclusions presented at meetings are usually considered preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed medical journal.

New study reveals biological toll on brain function of Holocaust survivors

More information:
The U.S. National Institute of Mental Health has more on stress.

Copyright © 2019 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

Brain changes noted in holocaust survivors and their children (2019, July 26)
retrieved 26 July 2019
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-07-brain-holocaust-survivors-children.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Source link

Study asked people with mental health disorders to recommend changes to international diagnostic guidelines

Study asked people with mental health disorders to recommend changes to international diagnostic guidelines

Credit: CC0 Public Domain

A Rutgers University researcher contributed to the first study to seek input from people with common mental health issues on how their disorders are described in diagnostic guidelines.

The study, which was conducted by researchers in the United Kingdom and the United States in collaboration with the World Health Organization Department of Mental Health, appears in The Lancet.

“Including people’s personal experiences with disorders in diagnostic manuals will improve their access to treatment and reduce stigma,” said Margaret Swarbrick, an adjunct associate professor and Director of Practice Innovation and Wellness at Rutgers University Behavioral Health Care, who collaborated with Kathleen M. Pike, executive director and scientific co-director of the Global Mental Health Program on the U.S. portion of the study.

The researchers talked to people with five common disorders—schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type 1, depressive episode, personality disorder and generalized anxiety disorder—about how their conditions should be described in the upcoming 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11). The ICD is the most widely used classification system for mental disorders. This is the first time people with diagnosed mental health disorders who are not health practitioners have been invited to give input on any published mental health diagnostic guidelines.

The project surveyed 157 people diagnosed with these conditions in the United Kingdom, India and the United States. The participants reviewed an initial draft of the ICD-11 chapter on mental, behavioral and neurodevelopmental disorders and recommended changes to more accurately reflect their experiences and/or remove objectionable language.

Many participants said the draft omitted emotional and psychological experiences they regularly have. People with schizophrenia added references to anger, fear, memory difficulties, isolation and difficulty communicating internal experiences. People with bipolar disorder added anxiety, anger, nausea and increased creativity. People with generalized anxiety disorder added nausea and anger. People with depression added pain and anxiety. People with personality disorder added distress and vulnerability to exploitation.

The participants also suggested removing confusing or stigmatizing terms such as “retardation,” “neuro-vegetative,” “bizarre,” “disorganized” and “maladaptive.”

“We discovered that the current draft reflected an external perspective of these conditions rather than the perspective of the person’s lived experience,” Swarbrick said. “This is a needed perspective for clinicians and researchers. Participants appreciated the non-technical summaries, which suggest that using such common language would go a long way in bridging the communication gap between the people being diagnosed and clinicians.”

WHO mental health guidelines could better capture ‘lived experience’

More information:
Corinna Hackmann et al, Perspectives on ICD-11 to understand and improve mental health diagnosis using expertise by experience (INCLUDE Study): an international qualitative study, The Lancet Psychiatry (2019). DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30093-8

Provided by
Rutgers University

Study asked people with mental health disorders to recommend changes to international diagnostic guidelines (2019, July 16)
retrieved 16 July 2019
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-07-people-mental-health-disorders-international.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Source link

Do you need a bone density test?

Do you need a bone density test?

Credit: CC0 Public Domain

Dear Mayo Clinic: I’ve never had a fracture or bone health issues. Should I still get a bone density test?

A: It depends. A bone density test uses a low dose of X-rays in a quick, noninvasive way to measure the amount of calcium and other minerals in a segment of bone, usually the hips and spine. By identifying decreases in bone mineral density, your health care provider can determine your risk of fractures, and diagnose and monitor osteoporosis progression.

Most young, healthy people do not need a bone density test. But as you age, your risk for osteoporosis increases because bone density tends to decrease as people grow older. That is especially true in women. If you’re a woman 65 or older, a bone density test is recommended. Even if testing reveals your bone health is good, this test can be a baseline measurement for future testing.

For men without fractures, the answer isn’t quite as clear. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force doesn’t recommend routine bone density testing for men. Because men have a higher bone mass and lose bone more slowly than women, they’re at a lower risk of fracture. There’s also no conclusive evidence that osteoporosis medications can prevent fractures in men. However, up to 1 in 4 men over 50 will break a bone due to osteoporosis. Groups such as the National Osteoporosis Foundation still recommend testing for men 70 and older.

Men 50-69 and women under 65 also may want to have bone density testing if they have risk factors for osteoporosis, including a family history of the disease or a history of fractures. Another risk factor is taking certain kinds of drugs that can interfere with the body’s process of rebuilding bone. Examples of these drugs include steroid medications, such as prednisone, and immunosuppressant medications, such as those taken after an organ transplant or bone marrow transplant.

People over 50 who have broken a bone and people who have lost 1.5 inches of height or more also may need a bone density test to screen for osteoporosis.

Bone density test results are reported in a measurement known as a “T-score.” A T-score of minus 1 or higher is normal. A score of minus 2.5 or lower is osteoporosis. The range between normal and osteoporosis is considered osteopenia, a condition where bone density is below the normal range and puts a person at higher risk for developing osteoporosis. Osteopenia also raises the risk for breaking a bone.

There are things you can do to help keep your bones stay healthy as you get older:

– Exercise is important. Be sure to include a combination of weight-bearing exercises, such as walking, jogging, running or stairclimbing.

– Eat a healthy diet, making sure to get the right amounts of calcium and vitamin D.

– If you smoke, stop. Research suggests that tobacco use contributes to weak bones.

– Limit the amount of alcohol you drink. Regularly having more than two alcoholic drinks a day raises your risk of osteoporosis, possibly because alcohol can interfere with the body’s ability to absorb calcium.

Talk to your health care provider about getting a bone density test, and discuss with him or her any concerns you have about your bone health. Taking steps now can help ensure good bone health in the future.

What’s the right age to test for osteoporosis?

©2019 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
Distributed by Tribune Content Agency, LLC.

Mayo Clinic Q&A: Do you need a bone density test? (2019, July 5)
retrieved 6 July 2019
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-07-mayo-clinic-qa-bone-density.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Source link

Does hypertension pose a health risk to older adults who wish to donate a kidney?

Does hypertension pose a health risk to older adults who wish to donate a kidney?

Credit: CC0 Public Domain

In an analysis of clinical information on older living kidney donors, hypertension was linked with a higher risk of developing kidney failure. The study, which is published in an upcoming issue of CJASN, provides new information that may help inform discussions with older individuals when they consider donating a kidney.

Receiving a kidney from a living donor is the best treatment for patients with kidney failure, but it is important to ensure that individuals who wish to donate an organ are able to safely do so. Older age is not a barrier for kidney donation; however, for many older individuals hypertension is common. It is unclear whether hypertension elevates the risk of kidney failure or early death among older donors .

To investigate, Fawaz Al Ammary, MD, Ph.D. (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine) and his colleagues analyzed national registry data on 24,533 older kidney donors from 1999 to 2016, including 2,265 who had hypertension at the time of donation. This information was linked to data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the Social Security Death Master File to determine which donors developed kidney failure or died. The study is the largest to examine what risks older donors with hypertension may face in the long term.

Donors were observed for a median follow-up time of 7.1 years after kidney donation (and up to a maximum of 18 years). During the study period, 24 donors developed kidney failure and 252 died. Hypertension at the time of donation was linked with higher risk of kidney failure, but not mortality. The 15-year risk of kidney failure was 0.8% for older donors with hypertension vs. 0.2% for older donors without hypertension. The risk of kidney failure was 3.1-times higher for donors with hypertension compared with those without hypertension who had otherwise similar clinical characteristics.

When the researchers restricted their analysis to include only donors from the 2004-2016 period (because documentation of antihypertensive therapy was unavailable before this time), they observed a stronger association—a 6.2-fold higher risk for kidney failure among donors with hypertension. There was no significant association between donor hypertension and 15-year mortality.

“Fortunately, the number of kidney failure events in this population is small. Albeit a rather small risk, practice guidelines for live kidney donor evaluation need to be revisited,” said Dr. Al Ammary. “While controlled hypertension in otherwise eligible older individuals may not be viewed as an absolute contraindication for kidney donation, these findings may inform conversations between the provider and the older individuals with hypertension when they consider donating a kidney.”

The investigators plan to conduct additional studies in this area to advance the field of organ transplantation in light of the growing number of older individuals who may offer an important source of organs for living donation.

In an accompanying editorial, Kenneth Newell, MD, Ph.D. (Emory University School of Medicine) and Richard Formica, Jr., MD (Yale University School of Medicine) noted that the findings “should not be used to ‘allow’ or ‘exclude’ individuals from proceeding with living kidney donation but rather should be incorporated into a comprehensive educational program to better inform donors about the long-term consequences of their decision to be a living kidney donor. In addition these findings identify a cohort of medically complex living kidney donors who should be offered the opportunity to enroll in specialized programs to provide lifetime surveillance for and treatment of conditions associated with an increased risk of end stage kidney disease.”

Older kidney donors with hypertension may have good kidney health following donation

More information:
“Risk of End-Stage Kidney Disease in Older Live Kidney Donors with Hypertension,” DOI: 10.2215/CJN.14031118

Provided by
American Society of Nephrology

Does hypertension pose a health risk to older adults who wish to donate a kidney? (2019, June 25)
retrieved 26 June 2019
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-06-hypertension-pose-health-older-adults.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Source link

Maine legalizes assisted suicide

Maine legalizes assisted suicide

(HealthDay)—Maine has become the eighth state to legalize medically assisted suicide.

“It is my hope that this law, while respecting the right to personal liberty, will be used sparingly,” Gov. Janet Mills, told the Associated Press.

Under the law, doctors can prescribe a lethal dose of a drug to terminally ill patients, and it will not legally be a suicide. The bill had failed to pass in a state referendum and also a number of times in the State Legislature. It finally passed by one vote in the House and a narrow margin in the Senate.

The new law was praised by Staci Fowler, who took on the fight for the law in honor of her friend Rebecca VanWormer, the AP reported. VanWormer died of breast cancer in 2017 and had pressed for such a law for years before her death. “This is what she wanted,” Fowler told the AP. “And now everybody has the option that she didn’t have.”

Vermont becomes third US state to legalize assisted suicide

More information:
AP News Article

Copyright © 2019 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

Maine legalizes assisted suicide (2019, June 15)
retrieved 16 June 2019
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-06-maine-legalizes-suicide.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Source link

Twins study links type 2 diabetes in midlife with stroke and brain artery narrowing in late life

Twins study links type 2 diabetes in midlife with stroke and brain artery narrowing in late life

Credit: CC0 Public Domain

A new study shows that type 2 diabetes in midlife is associated with a 30% increased risk of a serious blockage of the brain arteries, often leading to stroke, and a doubling of the risk of narrowing of the brain’s arteries in people over 60 years. The research is based on a cohort of twins in Sweden and published in Diabetologia, the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD).

Cerebrovascular disease (CBD) includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain. It falls into two main classifications: ischaemic, in which the blood flow is restricted; and haemorrhagic, in which bleeding occurs. CBD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are common disorders that the World Health Organization places amongst the top ten causes of death—between them killing approximately eight million people worldwide in 2016.

Both T2DM and CBD are complex genetic and lifestyle-related disorders. Genetic and familial environmental factors (e.g. foetal environment, maternal smoking and childhood socioeconomic status) have been shown to be involved in the development of both conditions. Accumulating evidence from previous studies suggests that T2DM is independently associated with an increased risk of CBD, especially ischaemic CBD.

This study—conducted by Ph.D. candidate Rongrong Yang, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China, and Dr. Weili Xu, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden and Tianjin Medical University together with their colleagues—examined the link between type 2 diabetes in midlife and the risk of the different types of CBD in late life.

Also, by focusing on data from twins, the study aimed to explore whether genetic and familial environmental factors could explain the link between T2DM and CBD. Because twins generally share the same genetic backgrounds as well as the same family life, in the uterus and in childhood and adolescence, comparisons made within pairs of twins provide an ideal opportunity to explore the possible confounding effects of genetics and familial environment on any association between the two conditions.

The study involved twins from the nationwide Swedish Twin Registry (STR), which started in the 1960s. During 1998-2002, all living twins above 40 years of age were invited to participate in the Screening Across the Lifespan Twin study (SALT), a full screening process that gathered data via computer assisted telephone interview. Of the participants in SALT, this study focused on those twins who were still alive on the follow up on 31st December 2014.

Individuals who did not reach the age of 60 years by 31 December 2014, who had type 1 diabetes, had T2DM onset before age 40 years or at or over age 60 years, and/or CBD onset before 60 years old, or had suffered a transient ischaemic attack (mini-stroke), were excluded—leaving 33,086 people remaining for the current analyses. The SALT data included information on demographics (age, gender and educational attainment); lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption); anthropometric measures (weight and height, from which BMI was calculated); zygosity (genetic similarity); and medication use.

Both diabetes status and CBD incidence were obtained from Sweden’s comprehensive National Patient Registry. The 33,086 twins included 14,969 men and 18,117 women. Of them, 1248 (3.8%) had T2DM at ages 40 to 59 years and 3121 (9.4%) had CBD at or over 60. The data were adjusted for possible confounders including: age, gender, education, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, marital status, hypertension, and heart disease. The co-twin matched analysis considered data from discordant twin pairs i.e. one twin with each condition and the other one without.

The study found that whilst there was no significant association between midlife T2DM and subarachnoid or intracerebral haemorrhage (brain bleed stroke) in late life, individuals who developed T2DM at ages 40 to 59 years had double the risk of cerebral occlusion (artery narrowing) and a 30% higher risk of cerebral infarction (ischaemic stroke). Further analysis of twin-pairs appeared to show that genetic and early-life familial environmental factors do not appear to play a role as confounders in the association between midlife T2DM and ischaemic CBD in late life.

The mechanisms underlying the association of T2DM with cerebral infarction and occlusion of the cerebral arteries are complex, state the authors, and not completely understood. They note that individuals with T2DM develop dyslipidaemia (abnormal amounts of lipids in the blood) and accelerated atherogenesis—the formation of fatty deposits in the arteries. In addition, metabolic disturbances such as insulin resistance, increased insulin production in response to this resistance, inflammation, increased fat deposits and abnormally high blood sugar in T2DM may also contribute to cerebrovascular events.

The authors suggest that increase in the number of the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels, and thickening of the basement membrane, induced by T2DM, lead to an increased risk of blocking of, but not rupture of the vessels—hence a the negative association between the condition and haemorrhagic CBD (rupture of the arteries) and a positive association with ischaemic CBD (blockage of the arteries).

The authors note some limitations to the study. There were only a limited number of discordant twins (one twin with CBD) in the analysis. They also note that both monozygotic twins (sharing 100% genetic material) and dizygotic twins (sharing only 50%) were included in the study—such that the analysis could not completely control for genetic make-up. In addition, the SALT data did not include information on dietary intake and physical activity or allow for these factors to be considered as potential confounders in the association.

The authors conclude: “This large-scale, nationwide, population-based study of Swedish twins provides evidence that midlife T2DM is associated with some types of ischaemic CBD but not haemorrhagic CBD in the over 60s. Our findings highlight the need to control midlife type 2 diabetes to help prevent blockage or narrowing of cerebral arteries in late life and reduce the incidence of stokes caused by such blockages.”

T2DM is risk factor for liver fibrosis progression in NAFLD

More information:
Diabetologia (2019). doi.org/10.1007/s00125-019-4892-3

Twins study links type 2 diabetes in midlife with stroke and brain artery narrowing in late life (2019, June 5)
retrieved 6 June 2019
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-06-twins-links-diabetes-midlife-brain.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Source link